Paul concludes the letter to the Romans with some warnings and advice. He has written to them outlining the true nature of the gospel so that they can hold fast to the true faith. He warns them “to watch out for those who cause divisions and put obstacles in your way that are contrary to the teaching you have learned. Keep away from them.” (Rom 16:17) It is vitally important that we are aware of truth and that we learn to discern the false from the true. Jesus taught His disciples that true disciples could be recognised by their fruit: “Make a tree good and its fruit will be good, or make a tree bad and its fruit will be bad, for a tree is recognised by its fruit.” (Matt 12:33) Here, Paul talks about ‘smooth talk and flattery’ and urges the Romans to “be wise about what is good, and innocent about what is evil” (Rom 16:19), again echoing Jesus’s words to be “as shrewd as snakes and as innocent as doves.” (Matt 10:16) We don’t have to have experiential knowledge of evil, but we do need to be shrewd, wise and discerning about all that is good. Naivety and cynicism are both extremes to be avoided.